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JAMA Internal Medicine reports that in the USA, those who smoke cigar, pipe, or cigarette have a significant overall mortality risk, and a much highers cancer mortality risk compared to nonsmokers.
The National Longitudinal Mortality Study collected baseline survey data from 1985 through 2011 and included 357,420 participants reporting on their use of cigar, pipes, or cigarettes.
In this cohort there were a total of 51,150 recorded deaths. All cause mortality was significantly increased in:
- exclusive current cigarette smokers (HR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.93-2.02)
- exclusive current cigar smokers (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.38)
A significantly increased risk of tobacco-related cancer deaths (bladder, esophagus, larynx, lung, oral cavity, and pancreas CA) was seen in:
- exclusive current cigarette smokers (HR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.84-4.29)
- exclusive current cigar smokers (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.11-2.32)
- exclusive current pipe smokers (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.05-2.38)
For nondaily cigarette users, statistically significant associations were seen for deaths from:
- lung cancer (HR, 6.24; 95% CI, 5.17-7.54),
- oral cancer (HR, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.84-11.58),
- circulatory death (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.30-1.57),
- cardiovascular death (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11-1.39),
- cerebrovascular death (stroke) (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74),
- COPD (HR, 7.66; 95% CI, 6.09-9.64) as well as for daily smokers.