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The current edition of Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology suggests that neither vitamin D supplementation, nor dose, will improve bone density or prevent fractures in adults. (Citation source: https://buff.ly/2O9tqxI)
A metanalysis of 81 randomized controlled trials included 53,537 subjects and varied in length ( 4 weeks to 5 years); most included women over age 65 years.
Pooled data showed that vitamin D supplementation had no effect:
- Fracture risk (36 trials; n=44 790, relative risk 1·00, 95% CI 0·93–1·07)
- Hip fracture (20 trials; n=36 655, 1·11, 0·97–1·26)
- Falls (37 trials; n=34 144, 0·97, 0·93–1·02)
- Bone mineral density at any site (range −0·16% to 0·76% over 1–5 years).
The authors suggest there is little justification to use vitamin D supplements to maintain or improve musculoskeletal health.