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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) poses numerous vascular risks, many of which are thought to be autoantibody mediated.
A retrospective population-based analysis was done to determine the association of SLE and plumonary embolism (PE) using the National Hospital Discharge Survey data, a representative sample of hospital discharges throughout the United States.
Researchers identified PE cases for the period 2001 to 2010. Among those were identified as SLE (ICD-9 code 710.0) and PE (ICD-9 codes 415.11, 415.12, 415.13, and 415.19).
A significant association between SLE and PE, independent of sex, race, age, comorbidities, found a two-fold increase risk of PE (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99–2.16).
Patients with a primary hypercoagulable disorder had the greatest odds of PE (OR, 15.37; 95% CI, 15.22–15.51). A higher risk was seen in those of African American (AA) race (OR, 1.08, 95% 1.08–1.09), and presence of at least 1 of the comorbidities (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.06–1.06).
Females, especially AA, had an overall higher prevalence of SLE-related PE (1.67%) compared with males (1.29%). This PE-SLE association was highest for females, blacks, and age group 35 to 44 years, respectively.